FERTILITY AND AGEDefine fertility as the ability to obtain offspring.Women after 35 years have almost half the rates of fertility compared with women who are in the age of 20.
Infertility is a "disease" which is defined as the failure to complete a successful pregnancy after 12 months or more regular contacts and free.Early assessment and treatment can be justified based on medical history and clinical findings and sought to women aged over 35 years.
Fertility varies between populations and decreases with increasing age in both women and men, although the effects of this factor is most evident in women.Although semen parameters had a significant reduction after 35 years, male fertility does not appear to show significant reduction before age 50 years.ivf_chartFrequency of contactsIn some cases scientists have to explain the basics of the reproductive process.Although intervals of abstinence longer than 5 days may affect the number of sperm, spaces around 2 days of abstinence are associated with normal sperm density.A very common misperceptions is that the very frequent ejaculation reduces male fertility.Has observed with surprise that in oligo-men spermikous concentration and sperm motility may be higher with daily ejaculation.These periods of abstinence in general do not seem to affect sperm morphology, judging by strict criteria. Nevertheless, after a long abstinence period 10 days or more parameters of sperm deteriorates.Although studies of sperm parameters provide useful quantitative data, these data may not accurately predict the density or functional capacity of sperm.Although various data suggest that daily sexual abstinence offers an advantage, specific recommendations regarding the frequency of contact can cause extra stress for no reason.The stress associated with infertility problems may reduce sexual desire, satisfaction and frequency of contact and is more accentuated when the time made the contact is scheduled or is under strict test for detection of ovulation.Couples should be advised that fertility increases with increasing frequency of contacts and is highest when the contact takes place every 1 or 2 days.
The fertile WINDOWFor advisory purposes, the "fertile window" is described as the six-day period ending on the day of ovulation.For clinical purposes, the period characterized as the most fertile can be estimated by measuring the period between two cycles, recording basal body temperature or stages of cervical mucus.The contact is more likely to result in pregnancy is when it happens within the first three days before ovulation.
Probability of pregnancy per cycle days after continuous intercourse, by age.
The time at which the woman is most fertile varies even in women with stable cycles.The women who attend those affected by ultrasound and detecting changes in cervical mucus in libido, pain in or available to be able to predict ovulation with accuracy to 50% of cases.The cervical mucus (vaginal secretions ......) provide an inexpensive and personal indication of the time ovulation happens.The estimated probability of conception compared with those of the cervical / vaginal secretions are shown in Figure 4.The likelihood is greater when the mucus is clear and slips (17) but this does not mean that such mucus is a necessary condition to become pregnant.The volume of cervical mucus increases as you increase estrogen levels in plasma 5 to 6 days before ovulation and reach their maximum level of 2 to 3 days of ovulation.A study involving 1681 cycles showed that pregnancy rates are higher (approximately 38%) when the contact occurs on the day the amount of cervical mucus is the maximum (day 0) and relatively low (about 15-20%) the day before or after the maximum point.
The ovulation detection devices, which include specific "kits" that measure the secretion of LH hormone in urine and electronic monitors, widely promoted as a means which helps a couple to determine the "fertile window them."There is some evidence to suggest that the detection devices of LH may decrease the time of conception.Although the recording of the LH hormone in urine may reduce the period of conception in couples who have infrequent contact due to various situations or katepilogi, a major study showed that the changes occurring in cervical mucus at the fertile interval that provide equally good or and better day with the best chance to capture the core body temperature or urinary LH
TECHNICAL CONTACT EROTICMany couples trying to conceive following the same practices at the end of the sexual contact. Although many women believe that staying in a vertical position for some time after the sexual contact to help the sperm to move and prevent the escape of the bay, this theory has no scientific basis.There is no evidence that sexual attitudes influence the likelihood of conception. The sperm can be found in the cervix within seconds after ejaculation, regardless of the attitude that the couple had. Although the female orgasm might promote the transfer of sperm, there is no clear correlation between orgasm and fertility.There is also no convincing evidence to suggest any relationship between sexual techniques and sex of the child.Even some vaginal formulations can reduce fertility, based on the effect of its sperm in vitro.DIET AND LIFESTYLEThe clearly reduced chances of conception in women who are either too thin or characterized by an extra thickness, but the scientific data describing the effects of physiological changes in the fertility of a woman is ovulating are few.Although a healthy lifestyle improves the fertility of women with ovarian dysfunction (37), there is little data correlating the various diets that exist (such as vegetarian diets, low fat diets, the diets rich in vitamins, antioxidants and herbal recipes ) to improve fertility or influencing the gender of the child.High levels of mercury in blood by high consumption of seafood has been associated with infertility.Women wanting to conceive should be advised to take supplements of folic acid to reduce the chance of being abnormalities in the spine.SMOKING-Smoking negatively affects fertility.The observation that menopause occurs 1-4 years earlier in women who smoke compared with non-smokers suggests that smoking accelerates the rate of follicular degeneration.Smoking is also associated with increased risk of miscarriage, both in pregnancies resulting in normal pregnancies and after assisted reproduction techniques.Although observed reductions in the density and mobility of sperm and abnormal sperm morphology in men who smoke, existing data do not show that smoking reduces male fertility.ALCOHOL-Not fully ascertain the effects of alcohol on female fertility. Although some studies have concluded that alcohol has devastating consequences, others suggest that perhaps even to help fertility.High levels of alcohol consumption (> = 2 drinks / day) is best avoided when a couple is trying to achieve pregnancy. However, no evidence to suggest that high consumption of alcohol negatively affects fertility. Of course the consumption of alcohol should be extinguished throughout the pregnancy as it is known the devastating effects of alcohol on fetal development while not establish safe levels of alcohol consumption.CAFFEINE-High levels of caffeine consumption (> 5 cups of coffee / day or the equivalent: 500 mg) have been associated with reduced fertility. During pregnancy, caffeine consumption of more than 200 or 300 mg may increase the risk of miscarriage but has not been associated with risk of congenital abnormalities.In general, a moderate caffeine consumption (1-3 coffees / day or equivalent) before or during pregnancy has no apparent adverse effects on fertility or pregnancy.
OTHER FACTORS-The effects of marijuana and other such substances are difficult to calculate because the use of these substances is illegal.But generally the use of these substances should be avoided both by women and by men as the use of these substances found to cause harmful effects on fetal development.The findings of a literature study indicate that the sauna does not reduce female fertility and is safe during pregnancy.In normal men, recommendations for changes in their lives that are largely in control or reduce exposure of the testes in high-temperature sources is unwarranted.The ability to conceive may be decreased in women exposed to certain toxic substances and solutions as those used in dry cleaning and chromatoviomichanies and men exposed to heavy metals are more likely to have more abnormal sperm factors.Exposure to pesticides is a concern for farmers because the increased risk of infertility in women who mix and use these substances.In men, exposure to agricultural pesticides have harmful effects on semen parameters in one study but not another study showed something similar.However, animal studies have shown that exposure to environmental factors have significant effects on reproduction.